Mysore: Paisa, 1/2 Paisa, and 1/4 Paisa of Tippu Sultan (1750-1799)

Started by Overlord, October 19, 2008, 09:55:27 AM

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Overlord

All coins issued during the first four years of Tippu Sultan's reign bear the Hijri date (in which numerals are read from left to right). In the fifth year, he introduced the Mauludi era (which takes its origin from the birth of the Prophet Muhammad). In the Mauludi system, years are read from right to left. Coins of the fourth year are dated 1200 AH, while those of the fifth year bear 1215 AM. The Hijri years are lunar years of 12 lunar months each. For the new calendar, Tippu adopted the Hindu calendar and replaced the names of the sixty cyclic years and months with Arabic ones.

Numerous errors occur in the AM dates, particularly on copper coins (probably because South Indian die engravers were unfamilair with Arabic numerals). For instance, on the coins of 1215 AM the date was intended to be written as
,
but on many coins (such as the 1/4 Paisa shown below), it appears as

(as the year would have been written in the older system).

Tippu also invented different names for his coins, which are usually found on the reverse. The gold and silver coins are named after Calipha and Imams, respectively. The copper ones, with the exception of the Double Paisa, are named after stars and planets. These names (with the exception of the Double Paisa), however, do not appear on copper coins till 1221 AM.

The obverse of the copper coins shows an elephant, either advancing or standing, left or right. (On some of the Double Paisa coins, the elephant is shown with its trunk uplifted.) Generally, pre-1221 AM coins show an elephant facing left, whereas later ones generally depict one facing right.

The Paisa or Zohra
Zohra is the Persian name of the planet Venus.
Stuck at Faiz Hisar (meaning 'the fort of bounty'), the name applied to Gooty.

Obverse: Elephant advancing to right with uplifted tail; above the tail the Mahmudi year 1216 (Regnal year VI; cyclic year 42; first day of Mauludi year: 7th April, 1788)


Reverse: From bottom to top (on a field of dotted rosettes, in a double-lined circle with a row of dots),

'Struck at'


'Faiz Hisar'




The 1/2 Paisa or Behram
Behram is the Persian name for the planet Mars.
Stuck at Pattan (meaning 'town'), which is a contraction of Srirangapatan (meaning 'the town of the Blessed Ranganatha'---that's a name of Lord Vishnu, in case you are wondering  ;))

Obverse: Elephant advancing to left with upifted tail (in double-lined circle with a row of dots); above the tail is the Mahmudi year 1216 (Regnal year VI; cyclic year 42; first day of Mauludi year: 7th April, 1788)


Reverse: From bottom to top (on a field of dotted rosettes, in a double-lined circle with a row of dots),

'Struck at'


'Pattan'




The 1/4 Paisa or Akhtar
Akhtar is the persian word for a star.

Obverse: Elephant advancing to left with upifted tail (in double-lined circle with a row of dots); above the tail is the Mahmudi year 1215 (Regnal year V; cyclic year 41; first day of Mauludi year: 20th March, 1787) (written wrongly, as described above)


Reverse: From bottom to top (on a field of dotted rosettes, in a double-lined circle with a row of dots),

'Struck at'


'Pattan'


Figleaf

Brilliant series of pics, Overlord. Thanks. It is always gratifying to see these striking designs enlarged. The bio in Wiki shows an exceptional person, probably ahead of his time, a victim of British colonial violence. Sad.

Detail: on your coins I read first the name of the mint, followed by "zuriba fi" ...

Peter
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Oesho

Quote from: Figleaf on October 19, 2008, 03:32:16 PM
Detail: on your coins I read first the name of the mint, followed by "zuriba fi" ...
Actually the legend is written from bottom to top. Zarb Pattan, Zarb Faiz Hissar, etc.

Overlord

Another 1/4 Paisa, Khaliquabad mint (KM#81.2). The AM year, I think, is 1225 (1796 AD). Here is an interesting link on the man himself.

Obverse


Reverse

Arminius

Hello!

Another delightful Indian elephant from Tippu Sultan:



India, Mysore, Tippu Sultan (1782-1799 AD.), ? mint, dated 1222 AM. (= 1793 AD.),
copper Paisa (21-23 mm / 11,42 g),
Obv.: elephant advancing to right with uplifted tail; above the tail the Mauludi system year 1222; all in a double-lined circle with a row of dots.
Rev.: Persian inscriptions, from bottom to top: 'Struck at' and mint name (?); all in a double-lined circle with a row of dots.
cf. Cr. 115 ; Henderson, "The coins of Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan" Madras 1921 - http://www.archive.org/stream/coinsofhaidarali00henduoft/coinsofhaidarali00henduoft_djvu.txt ;

As my skills to read Persian text still show big rooms for improvement maybe some more trained person can provide the mint name.

Thanks

Figleaf

Delightful is the right word. The elephant is very nice and clear. From the examples given by Overlord, I would bet on Faiz Hisar, remnants of the bottom left part showing on your coin.



Peter
An unidentified coin is a piece of metal. An identified coin is a piece of history.

Salvete

Some nice pictures there, Overlord.  And the explanation of Tipu Sultan's Maludi era coins is enlightening for newcomers to Mysore coins, and they can find more detail on the Internet and even in the Krause catalogues.  These are very popular coins to collect, and prices for the rare rupees and most gold issues, and even good quality double paisas have now 'gone ballistic.'  You would think that, after two heroic attempts to catalogue the coins, by Henderson and (that other chap - what's his name?) that the last word had been written about that series long ago, but still new varieties, particularly blundered and retrograde dates, are still being found, mainly on copper fractions, of course.  It is a long, complex and fascinating series to collect, but really nice specimens of all types, dates and varieties are now fairly expensive and EF coppers are very scace indeed.  I was lucky enoiugh to get a load of about 200 assorted coppers from a contact in Singapore, that put me on the right road early on, and a bulk lot of fanams from a Baldwin auction a few years back, otherwise I would not have been able to get together much of a collection at sensible prices.  I am glad I am not starting from scratch today!  And talking of southern state coins, has anybody else noticed the prices of Travancore coins lately?  Horrendous!

Salvete
Ultimately, our coins are only comprehensible against the background of their historical context.

asm

Quote from: Salvete on November 15, 2010, 11:00:46 AM
...... has anybody else noticed the prices of Travancore coins lately?  Horrendous!

Salvete

Why only South Indian coins.......all Indian coin prices, specially the British India series are unimmaginable........I pity the new commers to the field.....including myself......I started out a few years back when I picked up Silver rupees of Mughal era 9mainly common) at around 100 Indian Rupees. Now one can hardly get a copper dam at that rate...a good readable Dam costs Rs 250 - 1000. Melt value silver Rupees are almost Rs 500 and Akbar / jahangir / Shah jahan start around 1000.

Amit

PS Sorry for moving off topic. I believe this discussion could be spun off to another board.
"It Is Better To Light A Candle Than To Curse The Darkness"

Salvete

That was my fault again - I never could stick to the point, Amit!  But you are right about prices in general.  I have almost stopped buying coins because of it.  But there should be a bit of profit to take when I sell up!  Anybody want 7500 late and post-Mughal Indian coins?  They'll probably have to go to Baldwin, and I'll lose about 18% or somethng similar.  No justice, is there?  I'll be willing to split them into states and/or rulers, but most will not be available singly.  Too much hassle.

Salvete
Ultimately, our coins are only comprehensible against the background of their historical context.

@josephjk

Tipu Sultan, Mysore 1/4 paisa (also called an Akhtar), Patan mint, KM#121.4 -  AM date (read right to left) 1223 (1794 AD). Weight 2.4 gm.
This example is well past it's prime but thought I'd post it here and record. Thanks Overlord! your great write up and explanations, made it a breeze to ID this coin
http://www.ngccoin.com/price-guide/world/india-independent-kingdoms-mysore-14-paisa-km-1213-1222-1223-cuid-87235-duid-237817

coin_lover

Quote from: Overlord on October 19, 2008, 09:55:27 AM
All coins issued during the first four years of Tippu Sultan's reign bear the Hijri date (in which numerals are read from left to right). In the fifth year, he introduced the Mauludi era (which takes its origin from the birth of the Prophet Muhammad). In the Mauludi system, years are read from right to left. Coins of the fourth year are dated 1200 AH, while those of the fifth year bear 1215 AM. The Hijri years are lunar years of 12 lunar months each. For the new calendar, Tippu adopted the Hindu calendar and replaced the names of the sixty cyclic years and months with Arabic ones.


Indeed 1200 AH should have been the last of the Hijri year on Tipu's coins but there are also few coins with 1201 AH date on them, this is because the communication about the transition  from Hijri to Mauludi year did not reach all the mints on time.

RG

Half paisa of Tipu from my collection, Bangalore mint? .

coin_lover


drnsreedhar

Adding a Farukhi mint coin.
This mint was located in the town of Feroke, about 12Kms from Kozhikod in Kerala state. The exact location of the mint in Feroke is still obscure.

Dr.Sreedhar

drnsreedhar

Adding another coin from the Nagar mint (Bednur).

In the last four years of his reign, Tipu used Persian letters to denote date of issue. Alif for 1224, "Be" for 1225, "Te" for 1226 and "se" for 1227 were used.
This coins has Te, showing 1226.AM. The AM date is struck on the other side in numerals also. 
Dr.Sreedhar